There are many ways to backup a git repository and shuttle sets of changes around. If you just want an offline copy for safe-keeping, this method is very simple and convenient:
This creates a file
blog-dump.bundlewith the full history for
master, including all parent commits. You now have a single file, which can effectively be mailed, downloaded via SCP or FTP, or simply moved to Dropbox (affiliate link) for safe keeping, or otherwise shared with others.
Single files are easy to archive and backup.
Thawing a bundle
When you want to restore from such a bundle backup, you simply clone from it. The steps include creating a new repository, and then pulling from the bundle, like you would a remote repository:
Your repository now holds all commits that were stored in the bundle. For more usage-scenarios see the official git bundle help or just type:
RSpec is an extremely convenient tool for structuring and writing specs, and I use it on all my ruby-projects.
One set of built-in helpers I’d like to cheer on a bit are
let!, as they can greatly simplify setting up state for multiple examples. They exist to provide a simple and convenient way to create and share state between examples. When not using these methods, specs with a bit of shared state typically look like this:
This is easy to get started with, and when there are only a few variables in the
beforeblock, things are fine. But if you have a typo in an example where you intended to use the
@userinstance variable in an example, but you accidentally typed
@usr, you just get a
nilvalue, instead of a helpful error message regarding an unknown indentifier. This minor problem can be avoided by using
letinstead, as you get an unknown indentifier error instead of a
nilvalue. Another issue is that all variables in the
beforeblock are evaluated, whether or not they are actually used in the examples.
The excellent official RSpec 2 documentation has the following to say on
let, before showing clear examples of use:
letto define a memoized helper method. The value will be cached across multiple calls in the same example but not across examples.
letis lazy-evaluated: it is not evaluated until the first time the method it defines is invoked. You can use
let!to force the method’s invocation before each example.
The fact that results are both memoized and lazy-evaluated means no extra effort is expended if the value is not used in a given example. Performance win!
Please use the correct helper method - I’ve seen examples like this:
The exact same thing can be expressed directly and become more readable, just by adding a
let!helpers are available in from versions
rspec 1.3.1, and
rspec-core 2.0.0onwards. In a nutshell, this means they are available for use in Rails 2 and Rails 3 projects. Take them for a spin if you haven’t already, and tell me how it goes.
I recommend having a quick look at the Rspec 2.5 documentation now, as you’ll probably discover one or more neat new solutions to recurring issues when writing specs.
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